Outcomes from conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis (CHD) are disappointing for a life-saving therapy. The results of the HEMO Study show that the recommended minimum dose (Kt/V) for adequacy is also the optimum attainable with CHD. Interest is therefore turning to alternative therapies exploring the effects of increased frequency and time of hemodialysis (HD) treatment. The National Institutes of Health have sponsored 2 randomized prospective trials comparing short hours daily in-center HD and long hours slow nightly home HD with CHD. An International Registry has also been created to capture observational data on patients receiving short hours daily in-center HD, long hours slow nightly home HD, and other alternative therapies. Participation by individual centers, other registries and the major dialysis chains is growing and currently data from nearly 3000 patients have been collected. Pitfalls in data collection have been identified and are being corrected. A matched cohort (patients in other registries) study is planned to obtain information regarding hard outcomes expected from these therapies. The Registry may become the most important source of information required by governments, providers, and the nephrological community in assessing the utility of such therapies.