The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics

Genome Biol. 2008;9(7):404. doi: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-404. Epub 2008 Jul 15.


We are a multidisciplinary group of Stanford faculty who propose ten principles to guide the use of racial and ethnic categories when characterizing group differences in research into human genetic variation.

Publication types

  • Letter
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Ethnicity / genetics*
  • Genetic Research / ethics*
  • Genetic Variation / ethics*
  • Genome, Human
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Racial Groups / genetics*