MicroRNAs constitute a family of small RNA species that regulate translation and stability of mRNA. This additional layer of epigenetic regulation has escaped discovery until recently, and introduces another level between mRNA expression profiling and proteomics. Since microRNAs are involved in regulating most, if not all cellular processes, their involvement in oncogenesis was anticipated. Indeed, soon after their discovery, microRNAs were found to act as tumor suppressor genes by blocking the translation of oncogenes and act as oncogenes by inhibiting the translation of tumor suppressor genes. Here we review the most recent attempts aiming to analyze the functional roles of microRNAs in neuroblastoma, the most devastating solid tumor in childhood.