Unilateral hypoplastic breast in a male-to-female transsexual with Poland syndrome after gender reassignment--reconstructive considerations

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009 Mar;62(3):398-401. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2008.01.017. Epub 2008 Jul 18.


Gender reassignment procedures are performed more frequently nowadays due to a multidisciplinary approach and improved techniques and selection process. Many male-to-female patients require bilateral breast augmentation as part of the transformation following the gender reassignment if they fail to develop female breast features after hormonal treatment. We report on a very rare incidence of male-to-female gender reassignment in a patient with Poland syndrome. A male-to-female transsexual on hormonal therapy for gender reassignment developed one normal female-shaped breast whereas the other breast remained hypoplastic. As a male, he was not aware of his chest wall deformity but it became a major issue after successful gender reassignment surgery. Our experience with the specific reconstructive considerations and recommendations regarding our surgical approach to this complex reconstructive problem are discussed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Image
  • Breast / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mammaplasty / methods*
  • Poland Syndrome / psychology
  • Poland Syndrome / surgery*
  • Thoracic Wall / surgery*
  • Transsexualism / psychology
  • Transsexualism / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome