We have previously demonstrated that differences in neuropathic pain-like behaviors after sciatic nerve injury genetically maps to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in rats carrying RT1(c) or RT1(av1) haplotypes on the Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG) background. In order to further explore the genetic contribution to neuropathic pain, we have here examined the MHC-congenic rat strains PVG-RT1(n) and PVG-RT1(av1) and the inbred strains PVG (RT1(c)) and Brown-Norway (BN; RT1(n)). All studied strains developed mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia-like behavior) of the hind paw after photochemically induced sciatic nerve injury. However, the PVG-RT1(n) and PVG strains displayed significantly more allodynia than PVG-RT1(av1) and BN rats. In addition, the BN strain demonstrated an elevated threshold for the baseline response. The results demonstrate that both MHC and non-MHC genes influence experimental neuropathic pain in rats and also suggest that allelic variation contained in the RT1(av1) haplotype on the PVG background protects against neuropathic pain.