The in vitro translation products of carnation mottle virus (CarMV) genomic and subgenomic RNAs were analysed using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Viral RNAs directed synthesis of three main polypeptides, p80, p40, and p34. p40, which was the predominant product using unfractionated virion RNA as template, was identified as coat protein based on electrophoretic mobility through SDS-polyacrylamide gels and immunoprecipitation with anti-CarMV serum. Upon size-fractionation of virion RNAs by sucrose gradient centrifugation and subsequent translational analysis, p40 was found to be encoded by subgenomic RNA, whereas p80 and p34 were synthesized from templates of genome length. p80 and p34 were found to contain common or overlapping amino acid sequences by analysis of cleavage peptides formed during proteolysis with alpha-chymotrypsin. These data support CarMV translational mechanisms other than those proposed in a previous study (R. Saloman, M. Bar-Joseph, H. Soreq, I. Gozes, and U. Z. Littauer, 1978,Virology 90, 288-298).