Background: The optimal antithrombotic therapy strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation (PCI-S) is unknown. We assessed the safety of antithrombotic therapy strategies in AF patients with indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing PCI-S.
Methods: We studied consecutive AF patients with indication for OAC who underwent PCI-S. We compared patients that received triple antithrombotic therapy (TT) [aspirin, clopidogrel, and coumadin] against other regimes (non-TT) after PCI-S. The primary end point was defined as the occurrence of major bleeding complications that were termed as early major bleeding (EMB) [< or = 48 h] or late major bleeding (LMB) [> 48 h]. Clinical follow-up was performed, and complications were recorded.
Results: We studied 104 patients (mean age +/- SD, 72 +/- 8 years; 70% men); TT was used in 51 patients (49%). TT was associated with a higher incidence of LMB (21.6% vs non-TT, 3.8%; p = 0.006) but not of EMB (5.8% vs non-TT, 11.3%; p = 0.33). In multivariate analyses, glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor use (hazard ratio [HR], 13.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 108.3; p = 0.014) and PCI-S of three vessels or left main artery disease (HR, 7.9; 95% CI, 1.6 to 39.2; p = 0.01) were independent predictors for EMB. TT use (HR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.5 to 32.4; p = 0.012), the occurrence of EMB (HR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.8 to 25.3; p = 0.005), and baseline anemia (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 12.5; p = 0.027) were independent predictors for LMB. No differences in major cardiovascular events were observed in patients treated with TT vs non-TT (25.5% vs 21.0%; p = 0.53).
Conclusion: A high rate of major bleeding is observed in AF patients with indication for OAC undergoing PCI-S who receive TT. GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and multivessel/left main artery disease during PCI-S were independent predictors for EMB, while TT use, occurrence of EMB, and baseline anemia were independent predictors for LMB.