Shockwave lithotripsy and protective role of inosine: early and late evaluation in an experimental model

J Endourol. 2008 May;22(5):1059-63. doi: 10.1089/end.2006.0264.


Purpose: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is one of the most common treatments for urinary stones. Despite technological improvements, it may cause side effects varying from minor reversible microscopic damage to severe large renal hematomas. The aim of our experimental study is to assess the efficacy of inosine in avoidance of acute renal damage after SWL.

Materials and methods: We used 25 Wistar rats that had previously had left nephrectomy. The rats were divided into three groups: group A consisted of 10 rats undergoing renal SWL; group B consisted of 10 rats that received adjunctive treatment with IP injection of inosine 40 minutes before SWL; and group C consisted of 5 rats that served as controls. N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations were evaluated 24 hours before and 24 hours after SWL. All the rats were subsequently sacrificed (4 rats in group A and 4 in group B at 48 hours post-SWL, and the remaining rats were sacrificed 30 days post-SWL). Renal tissue was submitted to histologic and electron microscopic examination to assess early and late alterations.

Results: NAG and LDH values were significantly increased after SWL in group A (P<0.001), while no significant NAG and LDH differences were detected in group B (P<0.16). Early histologic examination revealed a considerable amount of cellular degeneration in group A with ultrastructural vacuolization and disruption of lysosomal membranes; the tubular features and cellular structures appeared to be well preserved in group B. No late histologic alterations were evident in any of the specimens.

Conclusions: Inosine is helpful and protective in the prevention of early microscopic damage to renal parenchyma due to SWL.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylglucosaminidase / urine
  • Animals
  • Inosine / pharmacology*
  • Kidney / blood supply
  • Kidney / injuries*
  • Kidney / pathology*
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / urine
  • Lithotripsy / adverse effects*
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Mitochondria / pathology
  • Models, Animal
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Vacuoles / pathology


  • Inosine
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Acetylglucosaminidase