Urinary excretion of strawberry anthocyanins is dose dependent for physiological oral doses of fresh fruit

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Oct;52(10):1097-105. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700372.


There is considerable interest in coloured fruits and berries as sources of biologically active anthocyanins. To examine the relationship between the oral dose and the amount excreted for anthocyanins from a food source across a physiological range of doses, volunteers were fed, in random order, four portions (100-400 g) of fresh strawberries as part of a standard breakfast. Urine was collected at 2 h intervals up to 8 h, and for the period 8-24 h. Fresh strawberries contained pelargonidin-3-glucoside as the major anthocyanin with smaller amounts of cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside. Anthocyanins were detected in the urine of all volunteers for all doses, predominantly as pelargonidin glucuronide and sulphate metabolites. There was a strong, linear relationship between oral dose and anthocyanin excretion (Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient = 0.692, p < 0.001, n = 40) which indicated that on an average, every additional unit of dose caused 0.0166 units of excretion. Within individuals, dose -- excretion data fitted a linear regression model (median R(2) = 0.93). We conclude that strawberry anthocyanins are partially bioavailable in humans with a linear relationship between oral dose and urinary excretion for doses up to 400 g fresh fruit.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anthocyanins / urine*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Fragaria / chemistry*
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Glucosides / urine*
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Young Adult


  • Anthocyanins
  • Glucosides
  • cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside
  • pelargonidin-3-glucoside