Periodontal health status and smoking among young adults

J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Sep;35(9):768-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01294.x. Epub 2008 Jul 21.


Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the periodontal status and present smoking habits among a representative sample of young adult Israelis and to investigate possible associations.

Material and methods: A representative sample of young adult Israelis was examined and interviewed on the day of release from compulsory military service. Collected data included demographic background (gender, education level, family size and father's country of origin) and current smoking habits. Clinical examination included the recording of periodontal health status according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI).

Results: Seven thousand and fifty-six young adults were examined. Sixteen per cent were classified as CPI 0, 78% as CPI 1-2 and 6% as CPI 3-4. In total, 36% of the sample reported a current smoking habit. Periodontal status was significantly improved among non-smokers, females and children of fathers born in Israel or Western countries.

Conclusion: Only 7% of the participants demonstrated signs of periodontitis and most young adults did not smoke; a dose-response association was revealed between present smoking habits and periodontal disease.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Dental Calculus / classification
  • Educational Status
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Gingival Hemorrhage / classification
  • Humans
  • Israel
  • Male
  • Periodontal Diseases / classification
  • Periodontal Index*
  • Periodontal Pocket / classification
  • Racial Groups / ethnology
  • Smoking*
  • Young Adult