Time- and dose-based gene expression profiles produced by a bile-duct-damaging chemical, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, in mouse liver in an acute phase

Toxicol Pathol. 2008 Jul;36(5):660-73. doi: 10.1177/0192623308320272. Epub 2008 Jul 22.


A toxicogenomics study was performed in the mouse liver after treatment of a bile-duct-damaging chemical, 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA), across multiple doses and sampling times in an acute phase using the AB Expression Array System. Imprinting control region (ICR) mice were given a single oral administration of a low (10 mg/kg b.w.) or high (100 mg/kg b.w.) dose of MDA. Mice were sacrificed six, twenty-four, and seventy-two hours after treatment for serum chemistry, histopathology, and mRNA preparation from liver samples. Treatment with MDA increased liver-toxicity-related enzymes in blood and induced bile-duct cell injury, followed by regeneration. To explore potential biomarker gene profiles, the altered genes were categorized into four expression patterns depending on dose and time. Numerous functionally defined and unclassified genes in each category were up- or down-regulated throughout the period from cellular injury to the recovery phase, verified by RT-PCR. Many genes associated with liver toxicity and diseases belonged to one of these categories. The chemokine-mediated Th1 pathway was implicated in the inflammatory process. The genes associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell-cycle regulation were also dynamically responsive to MDA treatment. The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway was likely responsible for the reconstitution process of the MDA-injured liver.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute-Phase Reaction / etiology
  • Alanine Transaminase / blood
  • Aniline Compounds / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / genetics
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood
  • Bile Ducts* / drug effects
  • Bile Ducts* / metabolism
  • Bile Ducts* / pathology
  • Bilirubin / metabolism
  • Carcinogens / toxicity*
  • Cell Cycle / genetics
  • Cell Cycle / physiology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Genes, cdc
  • Liver Function Tests
  • Liver* / drug effects
  • Liver* / metabolism
  • Liver* / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Models, Biological
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Random Allocation
  • Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
  • Th1 Cells / metabolism
  • Time Factors
  • Toxicogenetics / methods


  • Aniline Compounds
  • Carcinogens
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases
  • Alanine Transaminase
  • 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane
  • Bilirubin