Eag1 (K(V)10.1) is the founding member of an evolutionarily conserved superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels. In rats and humans Eag1 is preferentially expressed in adult brain but its regional distribution has only been studied at mRNA level and only in the rat at high resolution. The main aim of the present study is to describe the distribution of Eag1 protein in adult rat brain in comparison to selected regions of the human adult brain. The distribution of Eag1 protein was assessed using alkaline-phosphatase based immunohistochemistry. Eag1 immunoreactivity was widespread, although selective, throughout rat brain, especially noticeable in the perinuclear space of cells and proximal regions of the extensions, both in rat and human brain. To relate the results to the relative abundance of Eag1 transcripts in different regions of rat brain a reverse-transcription coupled to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real time PCR) was performed. This real time PCR analysis showed high Eag1 expression in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. The results indicate that Eag1 protein expression greatly overlaps with mRNA distribution in rats and humans. The physiological relevance of potassium channels in the different regions expressing Eag1 protein is discussed.