Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels in nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with human bocavirus bronchiolitis

J Clin Virol. 2008 Oct;43(2):223-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2008.06.008. Epub 2008 Jul 22.


Background: Human bocavirus (hBoV) is regarded as one of the possible etiologic agents in lower respiratory tract infection and bronchial asthma exacerbation in children despite frequent co-detection with other respiratory viruses. The immunologic response in children with hBoV infection is still not clear.

Objectives: To investigate the profiles of T helper-1 (Th1)/T helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in children with hBoV-associated bronchiolitis.

Study design: This study utilized of 59 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 59 infants aged 24 months or younger, including 29 from children with hBoV-related bronchiolitis and 30 with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related bronchiolitis. Eighteen infants hospitalized for elective surgeries were included as controls. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested simultaneously for cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha using the Cytometric Bead Array.

Results: Significantly higher concentrations of IFN-gamma (p=0.0001), IL-2 (0.006), and IL-4 (p=0.0002) were observed in hBoV positive specimens than in controls. The concentration of IL-10 (p=0.04) and TNF-alpha (p=0.006) in the RSV-positive group was significantly higher than in the hBoV-positive group, while there was no difference in other cytokines concentration between the two groups.

Conclusions: These results showed that both of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were increased in children with hBoV-related bronchiolitis compared to normal controls, but Th2-polarized responses were not observed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Bocavirus / genetics
  • Bocavirus / immunology*
  • Bocavirus / isolation & purification
  • Bronchiolitis, Viral / immunology*
  • Bronchiolitis, Viral / virology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Nasopharynx / virology
  • Parvoviridae Infections / immunology*
  • Parvoviridae Infections / virology
  • Th1 Cells / immunology*
  • Th2 Cells / immunology*


  • Cytokines