Workers who have claimed an association between Fragile X [fra(x)] Syndrome and Hyperactivity and aggressive behavior have done so despite the lack of controlled studies using standard diagnostic criteria. Accordingly, we provided a controlled test of the hypothesis that individuals with the fra(x) Syndrome are more hyperactive and have more symptoms of aggression than other mentally retarded individuals. The test formed part of a study to assess autistic behavior in fra(x) individuals. A sample of fra(x) individuals was obtained from the register of a clinical genetics unit and individually matched for age, sex, and IQ with mentally retarded individuals selected from assessment centres. Forty-five pairs of fra(x) cases and control individuals were compared on criteria which reflected DSM-III concepts of hyperactivity and on criteria reflecting aggressive behavior. The comparison failed to find a higher prevalence of these symptoms in the fra(x) group. An analysis of the study's statistical power suggested that it is unlikely that the investigation failed to detect a large to medium difference between fra(x) individuals and control individuals in the symptoms investigated.