Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors

Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):470-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07202.


The nuclear receptors known as PPARs and LXRs are lipid-activated transcription factors that have emerged as key regulators of lipid metabolism and inflammation. PPARs and LXRs are activated by non-esterified fatty acids and cholesterol metabolites, respectively, and both exert positive and negative control over the expression of a range of metabolic and inflammatory genes. The ability of these nuclear receptors to integrate metabolic and inflammatory signalling makes them attractive targets for intervention in human metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes, as well as for the modulation of inflammation and immune responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cholesterol / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / metabolism*
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Metabolic Diseases / metabolism
  • Metabolic Diseases / pathology
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Cholesterol