The amount of free and glycosidically bound sialic acid was quantitated in the oligosaccharide fraction of breast milk from nine women in the 2nd-3rd week of lactation. These amounts showed a certain individual variation but the amount of bound sialic acid was higher than the free sialic acid in each sample. A similar study on the feces from preterm and full-term breast-fed infants revealed that the amount of free sialic acid increased while the bound sialic acid decreased during maturation, which could possibly be a result of increasing activity of an intestinal sialidase in the newborn child. The fecal oligosaccharide patterns in one blood group A secretor breast-fed infant were studied every 2 months during weaning until the age of 1 year. It was seen that the fecal oligosaccharide pattern disappears, along with the blood group A-active compounds, with a corresponding decrease in the amount of breast milk in the diet.