This study examined the genetic basis of hypertension and renal disease in Dahl SS/Mcwi (Dahl Salt-Sensitive) rats using a complete chromosome substitution panel of consomic rats in which each of the 20 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes were individually transferred from the Brown Norway (BN) rat onto the Dahl SS/Mcwi genetic background. Male and female rats of each of the two parental and 22 consomic strains (10-12 rats/group) were fed a high-salt (8.0% NaCl) diet for 3 wk. Mean arterial blood pressure rose by 60 mmHg and urinary protein and albumin excretion increased 3- and 20-fold, respectively, in male SS/Mcwi rats compared with BN controls. Substitution of chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 13, or 18 from the BN onto the SS/Mcwi background attenuated the development of hypertension, proteinuria, and albuminuria in male rats. In female rats, substitution of chromosomes 1 and 5 also decreased blood pressure, protein excretion, and albumin excretion. These studies also identified several chromosomes in male (6, 11, Y) and female (4, 6, 11, 19, 20) rats that reduced albuminuria without altering blood pressure. These data indicate that genes contributing to salt-sensitive hypertension are found on multiple chromosomes of the Dahl SS/Mcwi rat. Furthermore, this consomic rat panel provides a stable genetic platform that can facilitate further gene mapping by either linkage studies or the breeding of congenic and subcongenic rats.