In order to harness the potential of block copolymers to produce nanoscale structures that can be integrated with existing silicon-based technologies, there is a need for compatible chemistries. Block copolymer nanostructures can form a wide variety of two-dimensional patterns, and can be controlled to present long-range order. Here we use the acid-responsive nature of self-assembled monolayers of aligned, horizontal block copolymer cylinders for metal loading with simple aqueous solutions of anionic metal complexes, followed by brief plasma treatment to simultaneously remove the block copolymer and produce metallic nanostructures. Aligned lines of metal with widths on the order of 10 nm and less are efficiently produced by means of this approach on Si(100) interfaces. The method is highly versatile because the chemistry to manipulate nanowire composition, structure and choice of semiconductor is under the control of the user.