The nuclear receptor PPARgamma is a lipid sensor that regulates lipid metabolism through gene transcription. Inhibition of PPARgamma activity by TNF-alpha is involved in pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer cachexia. PPARgamma activity is regulated by TNF-alpha at pre-translational and post-translational levels. Activation of serine kinases including IKK, ERK, JNK, and p38 may be involved in the TNF-regulation of PPARgamma. Of the four kinases, IKK is a dominant signaling molecule in the TNF-regulation of PPARgamma. IKK acts through at least two mechanisms: inhibition of PPARgamma expression and activation of PPARgamma corepressor. In this review article, literature is reviewed with a focus on the mechanisms of PPARgamma inhibition by TNF-alpha.