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Review
. 2008 Nov;66(5):594-617.
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03243.x. Epub 2008 Jun 28.

Hormesis and Medicine

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Free PMC article
Review

Hormesis and Medicine

Edward J Calabrese. Br J Clin Pharmacol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Evidence is presented which supports the conclusion that the hormetic dose-response model is the most common and fundamental in the biological and biomedical sciences, being highly generalizable across biological model, endpoint measured and chemical class and physical agent. The paper provides a broad spectrum of applications of the hormesis concept for clinical medicine including anxiety, seizure, memory, stroke, cancer chemotherapy, dermatological processes such as hair growth, osteoporosis, ocular diseases, including retinal detachment, statin effects on cardiovascular function and tumour development, benign prostate enlargement, male sexual behaviours/dysfunctions, and prion diseases.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Dose–response curve showing the quantitative features of hormesis
Figure 2
Figure 2
Anxiolytic effect of dl-THP, a naturally occurring alkaloid, on ICR mice of both sexes in the elevated plus-maze test. *Significantly different from controls at P ≤ 0.05 [207]. % Open arm entries, (formula image); % Time in open arm (formula image)
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of different doses of morphine on PTZ-induced seizure threshold. *Significantly different from controls at P ≤ 0.05 [208]
Figure 4
Figure 4
Median trials to criterion for maze bright and maze dull groups [209]. Brights, (formula image); Dulls, (formula image)
Figure 5
Figure 5
Effect of suramin on human breast cancer cells in vitro[66]. ZR/HERc Cells, (formula image); ZR75.1 Cells, (formula image); T-47D Cells, (formula image); MDA-MB-231 Cells, (formula image)
Figure 6
Figure 6
Comparison of the effect of ouabain on hormetic dose–responses in three biological models [83]. Canine (CVSMC), (formula image); Human (HUVSMC), (formula image); Rat (A7r5), (formula image)
Figure 7
Figure 7
Effects of statins on human endothelial cells [91]. CEV EC Proliferation, (formula image); ATV EC Migration, (formula image); CEV Apoptosis, (formula image); CEV Tube Length, (formula image); ATV Tube Length, (formula image)
Figure 8
Figure 8
Effects of lycopene, beta-carotene, and lutein on UVB-induced TBARS formation in human skin fibroblasts [115]. Lycopene, (formula image); Beta-carotene, (formula image); Lutein, (formula image)
Figure 9
Figure 9
Effect of Minoxidil on normal human keratinocytes [117]. 1st Passage Epidemal NHK – high, (formula image); 2nd Passage Epidemal NHK – low, (formula image); 1st Passage Follicular NHK – high microdissected, (formula image); 1st Passage Follicular NHK – High plucked, (formula image); Follicular NHK – Low, (formula image); NHK Proliferation, (formula image)
Figure 10
Figure 10
Effects of alendronate on CFU-F formation in murine bone marrow cells [124]
Figure 11
Figure 11
Effects of dexamethasone on cell growth and viability of cultured human RPE. *Significantly different from controls at P ≤ 0.05 [210]
Figure 12
Figure 12
Effects of yohimbine and idazoxan on erections exhibited by rats in the reflex test. *Significantly different from controls at P ≤ 0.05 [153]. Yohimbine, (formula image); Idazoxan, (formula image)
Figure 13
Figure 13
Effects of yohimbine on ejaculation latency of male rhesus monkeys. *Significantly different from controls at p ≤ 0.05 [151]
Figure 14
Figure 14
Effects of Congo red in the SMB cell assay [186]

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