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Review
. 2009 Jan;41(1):40-59.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2008.06.010. Epub 2008 Jul 9.

Potential Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin, the Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Against Neurodegenerative, Cardiovascular, Pulmonary, Metabolic, Autoimmune and Neoplastic Diseases

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Free PMC article
Review

Potential Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin, the Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Against Neurodegenerative, Cardiovascular, Pulmonary, Metabolic, Autoimmune and Neoplastic Diseases

Bharat B Aggarwal et al. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Although safe in most cases, ancient treatments are ignored because neither their active component nor their molecular targets are well defined. This is not the case, however, with curcumin, a yellow-pigment substance and component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), which was identified more than a century ago. For centuries it has been known that turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, but extensive research performed within the past two decades has shown that this activity of turmeric is due to curcumin (diferuloylmethane). This agent has been shown to regulate numerous transcription factors, cytokines, protein kinases, adhesion molecules, redox status and enzymes that have been linked to inflammation. The process of inflammation has been shown to play a major role in most chronic illnesses, including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. In the current review, we provide evidence for the potential role of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of various proinflammatory chronic diseases. These features, combined with the pharmacological safety and negligible cost, render curcumin an attractive agent to explore further.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Inhibition of inflammatory pathways by curcumin. BACE-1, beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1; CRP, C-reactive protein; CTGF, connective tissue growth factor; ELAM-1, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1; HAT, histone acetyl transferase; HIF, hypoxia inducible factor; ICAM-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1; LPO, lipid peroxidation; MMP, matrix metalloprotease ; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; STAT, signal transducers and activator of transcription protein; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Effect of curcumin on various proinflammatory diseases.

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