Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen, causing infections whose management is often problematic due to its inherent resistance to many antibiotics, making co-trimoxazole the main therapeutic option. However, there are cases in which either due to antimicrobial resistance or allergic reactions and intolerance to co-trimoxazole this antibiotic cannot be administered. We sought to evaluate the available clinical evidence regarding potentially effective alternative antibiotics for the treatment of S. maltophilia infections.
Methods: The literature search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases. The search string used was 'Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OR Xanthomonas maltophilia'.
Results: Thirty-one case reports and 5 case series were retrieved including a total of 49 patients with a variety of infections. Twenty of 49 cases (40.8%) were treated with ciprofloxacin as monotherapy or in combination with other antibiotics; 12 of 49 cases (24.5%) were treated with ceftriaxone- or ceftazidime-based regimens; and 6 of 49 cases (12.2%) were treated with ticarcillin- or ticarcillin/clavulanate-based regimens. The cure or improvement rates were 18 cases (90%), 8 (75%) and 4 (66.7%), respectively. The remaining 11 patients received various antimicrobials including aminoglycoside-based regimens, carbapenems, levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, aztreonam, minocycline and other beta-lactams.
Conclusions: The limited available data suggest that ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime or ceftriaxone, and ticarcillin/clavulanate, alone or in combination with other antibiotics, may be considered as alternative options beyond co-trimoxazole.