Increased plasma S100A12 (EN-RAGE) levels in hemodialysis patients with atherosclerosis

Am J Nephrol. 2009;29(1):18-24. doi: 10.1159/000148646. Epub 2008 Jul 26.


Background: S100A12, also known as EN-RAGE (extracellular newly identified receptor for advanced glycation end products binding protein) is a ligand for RAGE, and has been proposed to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the plasma S100A12 concentration in patients with ESRD and undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and evaluated the relation between S100A12 level and carotid intimal media thickness (IMT) by ultrasound.

Methods: We measured plasma S100A12 concentration in 72 HD patients and 42 control subjects. IMT of the carotid artery was measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography in 46 HD patients.

Results: The mean plasma S100A12 level was 2.3-fold higher in HD patients than in control subjects (25.0 +/- 2.32 vs. 10.7 +/- 0.97 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified circulating white blood cell count as a positive independent determinant and total cholesterol and serum albumin levels as negative independent determinants of plasma S100A12 concentration. The maximum IMT was positively correlated with plasma S100A12 level. Stepwise multiple regression analysis also identified plasma S100A12 as a significant independent determinant of the maximum IMT.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that S100A12 protein is involved in the acceleration of atherosclerosis in HD patients.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Atherosclerosis / blood*
  • Atherosclerosis / therapy*
  • Carotid Arteries / diagnostic imaging
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cholesterol / metabolism
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods
  • Female
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Renal Dialysis*
  • S100 Proteins / blood*
  • S100A12 Protein
  • Ultrasonography / methods


  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Ligands
  • S100 Proteins
  • S100A12 Protein
  • S100A12 protein, human
  • Cholesterol