Effect of fertilizer application on ammonia emission and concentration levels of ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite ions in a rice field

Environ Monit Assess. 2009 Jul;154(1-4):275-82. doi: 10.1007/s10661-008-0395-2. Epub 2008 Jul 29.


The concentrations of ammonium NH4+, nitrate NO3-, and nitrite NO2- ions were recorded along with ammonia (NH(3)) emission from a fertilized rice field located in the Kwangju province in South Korea over a period of 4 months (June to October 2006). The highest magnitude of NH(3) flux was 20,754 microg m(-2) h(-1), while the average flux value over the entire sampling period was 2,395 microg m(-2) h(-1). The highest ionic concentrations were 1.67, 0.44, and 0.71 ppm for NH4+, NO3-, and NO2- ions, respectively. Possible effects of soil pH on NH(3) fluxes were detected, as they concurrently exhibited a gradual and periodic change during the sampling period. Positive correlations existed between concentrations of NH4+ and NO2- ions and the soil pH. Positive correlations also existed between NH(3) emission flux and ambient (and water) temperatures. Results indicated that fertilizer application to rice can lead to significant emission of NH(3) along with NH4+ and NO3- ions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ammonia / analysis*
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Fertilizers*
  • Nitrates / analysis*
  • Nitrites / analysis*
  • Oryza*
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / analysis*
  • Soil Pollutants / analysis*


  • Fertilizers
  • Nitrates
  • Nitrites
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Ammonia