Hepatitis B vaccine was first recommended for administration to all infants in 1991 by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) as the primary focus of a strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in the United States (1). The recommended timing of administration of the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine to infants has evolved since then to optimize prevention of perinatal and early childhood HBV infections. In 1991, the first dose was recommended to be administered at birth before hospital discharge or at age 1--2 months. In 2002, ACIP indicated a preference for the first dose to be administered to newborns before hospital discharge. In December 2005, ACIP issued revised recommendations specifying that all medically stable newborns who weigh >/=2,000 g (4.4 lbs) receive their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine before hospital discharge. To measure hepatitis B vaccination coverage during the neonatal period, CDC analyzed data from the 2006 National Immunization Survey (NIS). This report summarizes the results of this analysis and provides national, state, and local data on vaccination coverage for infants who received the hepatitis B vaccine during the first days of life. The findings reveal that, during January 2003--June 2005, before implementation of the 2005 ACIP hepatitis B vaccine recommendation, the national newborn hepatitis B vaccination coverage estimate was 42.8% at age 1 day and 50.1% at age 3 days, with substantial variation by states and local areas. To comply with ACIP recommendations and increase coverage, delivery hospitals should provide hepatitis B vaccination of newborns as a standard of care.