1. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions can lead to serious adverse events and the evaluation of a new molecular entity's (NME) drug-drug interaction potential is an integral part of drug development and regulatory review before its market approval. Clinically relevant interactions mediated by transporters are of increasing interest in clinical development and research in this emerging area and it has been revealed that drug transporters can play an important role in modulating drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. 2. Acting alone or in concert with drug-metabolizing enzymes transporters can affect the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of a drug. The newly released drug interaction guidance by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) includes new information addressing drug transporter interactions with a primary focus on P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1). 3. This paper provides a regulatory viewpoint on transporters and their potential role in drug-drug interactions. It first outlines information that might be needed during drug development and ultimately included in new drug application (NDA) submissions to address potential transporter-mediated drug interactions. Next, it explains criteria that may warrant conduct of in vivo P-gp-mediated drug interaction studies based on in vitro assessment. In addition, it includes a review case that describes the evaluation of data suggesting a P-gp-based induction interaction.