1. P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1), one of the most clinically important transmembrane transporters in humans, is encoded by the ABCB1/MDR1 gene. Recent insights into the structural features of P-gp/MDR1 enable a re-evaluation of the biochemical evidence on the binding and transport of drugs by P-gp/MDR1. 2. P-gp/MDR1 is found in various human tissues in addition to being expressed in tumours cells. It is located on the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells, bile canaliculi, renal tubular cells, and placenta and the luminal surface of capillary endothelial cells in the brain and testes. 3. P-gp/MDR1 confers a multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype to cancer cells that have developed resistance to chemotherapy drugs. P-gp/MDR1 activity is also of great clinical importance in non-cancer-related drug therapy due to its wide-ranging effects on the absorption and excretion of a variety of drugs. 4. P-gp/MDR1 excretes xenobiotics such as cytotoxic compounds into the gastrointestinal tract, bile and urine. It also participates in the function of the blood-brain barrier. 5. One of the most interesting characteristics of P-gp/MDR1 is that its many substrates vary greatly in their structure and functionality, ranging from small molecules such as organic cations, carbohydrates, amino acids and some antibiotics to macromolecules such as polysaccharides and proteins. 6. Quite a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms have been found for the MDR1 gene. These single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with altered oral bioavailability of P-gp/MDR1 substrates, drug resistance, and a susceptibility to some human diseases. 7. Altered P-gp/MDR1 activity due to induction and/or inhibition can cause drug-drug interactions with altered drug pharmacokinetics and response. 8. Further studies are warranted to explore the physiological function and pharmacological role of P-gp/MDR1.