Two strategies to increase the donor allograft pool for pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are deceased donor segmental liver transplantation (DDSLT) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes after use of these alternative allograft types. Data on all OLT recipients between February 2002 and December 2004 less than 12 years of age were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing database. The impact of allograft type on posttransplant survivals was assessed. The number of recipients was 1260. Of these, 52% underwent whole liver transplantation (WLT), 33% underwent DDSLT, and 15% underwent LDLT. There was no difference in retransplantation rates. Immediate posttransplant survivals differed, with WLT patients having improved 30-day patient survivals compared to DDSLT and LDLT patients (P = 0.004). Although unadjusted 1-year patient survivals were better for WLT versus DDSLT (P = 0.01), after risk adjustment, 1-year patient survivals for WLT (94%), DDSLT (91%), and LDLT (93%) were similar (P values > 0.05). Unadjusted allograft survivals were better for WLT and LDLT in comparison with DDSLT (P = 0.009 and 0.018, respectively); however, after adjustment, these differences became nonsignificant (all P values > 0.05). For patients < or = 2 years of age (n = 833), the adjusted 1-year patient and allograft survivals were also similar (all P values > 0.05). In conclusion, in the current era of pediatric liver transplantation, WLT recipients have better immediate postoperative survivals. By 1 year, adjusted patient and allograft survivals are similar, regardless of the allograft type.