Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian version of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Aug 1;33(17):E595-601. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31817c6c4b.


Study design: Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of a self-report questionnaire.

Objective: To perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) and to investigate its test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness among Norwegian-speaking patients with sciatica due to disc herniation.

Summary of background data: The TSK is a self-report questionnaire developed to assess kinesiophobia, or fear of movement and/or (re)injury. To date, the psychometric properties of the TSK have not been demonstrated in patients with sciatica.

Methods: The TSK was translated and back-translated according to recent guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. A principal components analysis and an evaluation of floor and ceiling effects were conducted. The TSK was tested for test-retest reliability, repeatability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Responsiveness was measured as standardized response means using a global change scale after 3 months as the external criteria.

Results: In total, 466 patients with sciatica due to disc herniation were included. The TSK was easily comprehended. The principal components analysis yielded 3 factors. Component 1 showed a floor effect in which 152 (33.3%) of the patients achieved the lowest possible score. Repeatability according to Bland & Altman was 8, the coefficient of variance for paired measurements was 11%, and weighted kappa values for each item were moderate to substantial. Internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha was 0.81. Correlations with the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), FABQ/work, and FABQ/physical activity were 0.50, 0.38, and 0.51, respectively. Responsiveness was low to moderate.

Conclusion: The Norwegian version of the TSK was easily comprehended and demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability for the assessment of fear of movement and/or (re)injury in patients with sciatica due to disc herniation. However, responsiveness was low to moderate.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intervertebral Disc Displacement / diagnosis
  • Intervertebral Disc Displacement / ethnology
  • Intervertebral Disc Displacement / psychology
  • Kinesis / physiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Norway / ethnology
  • Pain Measurement / psychology
  • Pain Measurement / standards
  • Phobic Disorders / diagnosis
  • Phobic Disorders / ethnology*
  • Phobic Disorders / psychology*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards
  • Psychometrics / standards
  • Sciatica / diagnosis
  • Sciatica / ethnology
  • Sciatica / psychology