Variation of acharan sulfate and monosaccharide composition and analysis of neutral N-glycans in African giant snail (Achatina fulica)

Glycoconj J. 2008 Dec;25(9):863-77. doi: 10.1007/s10719-008-9149-1. Epub 2008 Aug 1.


Acharan sulfate content from African giant snail (Achatina fulica) was compared in eggs and snails of different ages. Acharan sulfate was not found in egg. Acharan sulfate disaccharide -->4)-alpha-D-GlcNpAc (1-->4)-alpha-L-IdoAp2S(1-->, analyzed by SAX (strong-anion exchange)-HPLC was observed soon after hatching and increases as the snails grow. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that mole % of glucosamine, a major monosaccharide of acharan sulfate, increased with age while mole % of galactose decreased with age. These results suggest that galactans represent a major energy source during development, while acharan sulfate appearing immediately after hatching, is essential for the snail growth. The structures of neutral N-glycans released from eggs by peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F), were next elucidated using ESI-MS/MS, MALDI-MS/MS, enzyme digestion, and monosaccharide composition analysis. Three types of neutral N-glycan structures were observed, truncated (Hex(2-4)-HexNAc(2)), high mannose (Hex(5-9)-HexNAc(2)), and complex (Hex(3)-HexNAc(2-10)) types. None showed core fucosylation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Africa
  • Animals
  • Carbohydrate Sequence
  • Gastropoda / chemistry*
  • Gastropoda / enzymology
  • Glycosaminoglycans / chemistry*
  • Mannose / chemistry
  • Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Monosaccharides / chemistry*
  • Ovum / chemistry
  • Polysaccharides / analysis*
  • Polysaccharides / chemistry*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases / metabolism


  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Monosaccharides
  • Polysaccharides
  • acharan sulfate
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases
  • Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase
  • Mannose