The thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine increases food intake in rodents

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Mar;11(3):251-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00935.x. Epub 2008 Jul 29.


Background: The thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (T(1)AM), an endogenous biogenic amine, is a potent agonist of the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). T(1)AM is present in rat brain, and TAAR1 is expressed in hypothalamic nuclei associated with the regulation of energy homeostasis.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of T(1)AM on food intake in rodents.

Methods: We determined the effect of (i) intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of T(1)AM on food intake, oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and locomotor activity in mice; (ii) intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of T(1)AM on food intake in male rats; (iii) c-fos expression following ventricular administration of T(1)AM in male rats; and (iv) direct injection of T(1)AM into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of male rats on food intake.

Results: (i) T(1)AM (4 nmol/kg) significantly increased food intake following i.p. injection in mice but had no effect on VO(2) or locomotor activity. (ii) ICV administration of T(1)AM (1.2 nmol/kg) significantly increased food intake in male rats. (iii) Intraventricular administration of T(1)AM significantly increased c-fos expression in the ARC of male rats. (iv) Direct administration of T(1)AM (0.12, 0.4 and 1.2 nmol/kg) into the ARC of male rats significantly increased food intake.

Conclusion: These data suggest that T(1)AM is an orexigenic factor that may act through the ARC to increase food intake in rodents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus / drug effects*
  • Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus / metabolism
  • Biogenic Amines / administration & dosage*
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Eating / drug effects*
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Thyronines / administration & dosage*


  • 3-iodothyronamine
  • Biogenic Amines
  • Thyronines