Pattern of pediatric HIV/AIDS: a five-year experience in a tertiary hospital

J Natl Med Assoc. 2008 Jul;100(7):821-5. doi: 10.1016/s0027-9684(15)31376-6.


Objectives: to determine the mode of transmission, clinical presentation and the outcome in children with HIV/AIDS at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methodology: a five-year retrospective study of children with HIV/AIDS from January 2001 to December 2005. Screening was based on World Health Organization criteria. Confirmation of HIV seropositivity was from a positive ELISA and then a western blot assay.

Results: 10,107 children were admitted over the said five-year period; 1,359 died, giving a mortality rate of 13.5%. Eight-hundred-forty (8.3%) of the admitted children had HIV/AIDS; 305 (36.3%) died. Mother-to-child transmission accounted for the highest mode of transmission, 794(94.5%). There were 44 (5.3%) cases of unidentified route of infection and two (0.2%) cases of sexual abuse in males aged 11 and 13 years. Fever (81.3%), diarrhea (75.0%), vomiting (41.4%), difficulty in breathing (39.8%) and refusal of feeds (39.8%) were the commonly encountered clinical features. Septicemia (49.5%) and acute respiratory tract infections (40.9%) were the major admitting diagnoses and major causes of deaths. Deaths from HIV infection accounted for 22.4% of the total deaths for the study period.

Conclusions: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is still high in the area of study, and pediatric HIV/AIDS remains a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Present efforts to strengthen and sustain prevention of mother to child transmission are highly encouraged. Advocacy for protection of children against sexual abuse should be strengthened.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / transmission*
  • HIV-1
  • Hospitals, Teaching
  • Humans
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  • Male
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Offenses
  • Time Factors