The long-term followup of primary anterior cruciate ligament repair. Defining a rationale for augmentation

Am J Sports Med. May-Jun 1991;19(3):243-55. doi: 10.1177/036354659101900307.


Fifty primary ACL repairs using the Marshall multiple suture technique were analyzed. The average age at surgery was 23 years (range, 15 to 56), with 76% under the age of 30. The average followup was 61.3 months (range, 48 to 86). The average time from injury to surgery was 7 days (range, 1 to 18). Eighty percent of the injuries were sports-related with football and skiing predominating. Thirty-eight percent were "isolated" ACL tears, and 62% had associated injuries. There was a 46% incidence of meniscal tear with 59% of the meniscal tears being repaired. The postoperative evaluation included a multifactorial analysis correlating 43 variables including subjective, objective, radiographic, and KT-1000 data. The Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Diagnostic Score, a clinical objective score based on the postoperative Lachman and pivot shift examination, a KT-1000 arthrometer data score, and an overall combined assessment score were determined. The results showed 59% excellent, 18% good, 14% fair, and 8% poor. The Lachman test was diagnostic in all cases. The quality of ACL tissue at repair was rated excellent or good in 62% of the cases. Four patterns of ACL tears were distinguished by the location of the tear. Football injury, younger age, increased peroperative pivot shift, midsubstance Type IV tear, and return of full motion correlated with poor postoperative results. Increasing age, tight jointedness, Type I tears, and a 5 degrees flexion contracture correlated with good postoperative results.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / diagnostic imaging
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
  • Athletic Injuries / surgery
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / surgery*
  • Male
  • Menisci, Tibial / surgery*
  • Middle Aged
  • Radiography
  • Rupture
  • Suture Techniques
  • Tibial Meniscus Injuries