Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects.
Study design: This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2003).
Results: Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20-4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27-14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17-1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13-2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2).
Conclusion: PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects.