Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on 15 isolates of an unidentified Gram-positive, anaerobic, non-sporulating coccobacillus-shaped bacterium isolated from human faeces. The novel organisms were catalase-negative, indole-negative and produced acetate and succinate as end products of metabolism. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the 15 isolates were highly related to each other and formed a hitherto unknown subline within the clostridial rRNA cluster XIVa. The novel isolates formed a robust phylogenetic group with a number of organisms which included Clostridium coccoides, Ruminococcus luti, Ruminococcus obeum and a number of other misclassified ruminococci. On the basis of these studies, a novel genus, Blautia gen. nov., is proposed. It is suggested that Clostridium coccoides, Ruminococcus hansenii, Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus, Ruminococcus luti, Ruminococcus productus, and Ruminococcus schinkii are transferred to this genus as Blautia coccoides gen. nov., comb. nov., Blautia hansenii comb. nov., Blautia hydrogenotrophica comb. nov., Blautia luti comb. nov., Blautia producta comb. nov. and Blautia schinkii comb. nov. One of the new isolates, the hitherto unknown coccus-shaped bacterial strain WAL 14507T (=ATCC BAA-1564T=DSM 19850T) is proposed as representing the type strain of a novel species, Blautia wexlerae sp. nov.