ADHD subtypes and comorbid anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder: differences in sleep problems

J Pediatr Psychol. 2009 Apr;34(3):328-37. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsn083. Epub 2008 Aug 1.


Objective: Sleep problems were analyzed in children with ADHD (Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder).

Methods: Scales were completed by parents of 135 control children and 681 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-C) or inattentive type (ADHD-I) with or without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, or depression.

Results: Children with ADHD-I alone had the fewest sleep problems and did not differ from controls. Children with ADHD-C had more sleep problems than controls and children with ADHD-I. Comorbid anxiety/depression increased sleep problems, whereas ODD did not. Daytime sleepiness was greatest in ADHD-I and was associated with sleeping more (not less) than normal. Medicated children had greater difficulty falling asleep than unmedicated children.

Conclusions: Differences in sleep problems were found as a function of ADHD subtype, comorbidity, and medication.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Age Factors
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anxiety / drug therapy
  • Anxiety / epidemiology*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / classification
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology*
  • Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / drug therapy
  • Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Depression / drug therapy
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Humans
  • Sex Factors
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / chemically induced
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors