Background: Chronic renal failure (CRF) has been shown to significantly reduce the nonrenal clearance and alter bioavailability of drugs predominantly metabolized by the liver and intestine.
Objectives: The purpose of this article is to review all significant animal and clinical studies dealing with the effect of CRF on drug metabolism and transport.
Methods: A search of the National Library of Medicine PubMed was done with terms such as chronic renal failure, cytochrome P450 [CYP], liver metabolism, efflux drug transport and uptake transport, including relevant articles back to 1969.
Results: Animal studies in CRF have shown a significant downregulation (40-85%) of hepatic and intestinal CYP metabolism. High levels of parathyroid hormone, cytokines and uremic toxins have been shown to reduce CYP activity. Phase II reactions and drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptide are also affected.
Conclusion: CRF alters intestinal, renal and hepatic drug metabolism and transport producing a clinically significant impact on drug disposition and increasing the risk for adverse drug reactions.