This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and level of individual and community participation in the control of Human African trypanosomiasis in Urambo District, western Tanzania. Semi structured questionnaires were used to collect information from individuals at house hold level. Retrospective data of HAT was sought from the medical officers in-charge of health facilities. The results indicate that, 191 (90.5%, n = 211) individuals knew tsetse flies and 187 (88.6%, n = 211) knew HAT. All nine key informants reported that, the communities were aware of HAT while seven key informants reported that, the communities were aware of health risks associated with tsetse bites in human. There was poor knowledge about the role played by animals in the transmission of HAT (26.7%, n = 187). Majority of those who knew HAT (n = 187) were willing to contribute labour (70.1%) and money (64.2%) to tsetse and HAT control whereas amongst those who knew tsetse flies, 66.5% and 60.7% were willing to contribute labour and money, respectively. Amongst those who knew any HAT control technique (n = 108), 78.7% and 82.4% were willing to contribute money and labour respectively. A total of 454 cases of HAT were reported in the area from 1999 to 2006. It is concluded that, the factors influencing individual and community participation include the knowledge of tsetse, HAT and control measures.