Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal isolates from Turkey

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2008 Nov;94(4):615-9. doi: 10.1007/s10482-008-9273-8. Epub 2008 Aug 6.


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonize most frequently in the anterior nares of the nose and cause serious infections all over the world. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA strains in Turkish elementary school children. We also analyzed molecular characterizations of MRSA strains by using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi locus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and detection of the Panton-valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene. The nasal swabs were obtained from 4,050 children during a 4 month period in Ankara. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 1 mug oxacillin and 30 mug cefoxitin was determined by a disk diffusion method. We found that the 1,001 of 4,050 (24.7%) children were colonized with S. aureus. Three S. aureus strains were resistant to oxacillin and cefoxitin. The rate of MRSA among all children was 0.07%. The MRSA strains revealed three different PFGE pattern. All MRSA isolates by harbored the SCCmec type IV element, but not the PVL gene. The two MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type (ST) 30, whereas the other one was a unique type. The results of this study demonstrated that S. aureus nasal carriage rate was consistent with previous studies. However, MRSA carriage rate was low. This study also indicated that the ST30-type IV without PVL gene MRSA clone may be expected to spread in Turkish community.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • Carrier State
  • Child
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leukocidins / genetics
  • Male
  • Methicillin Resistance*
  • Nose / microbiology*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / epidemiology
  • Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus aureus / genetics*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification*
  • Turkey / epidemiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Leukocidins