Accumulating evidence has shown that various lengths of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences are widely present in polyadenylated RNA. This review article will discuss these polyadenylated rRNA containing transcripts (PART). PART are highly abundant and widely expressed in various tissues. It appears that there may be two types of PART. One type, type I, contains the rRNA segments (from approximately 10 nucleotides up to several hundred nucleotides) located within the transcripts. It has been demonstrated that short rRNA sequences within type I PART may function as cis-regulatory elements that regulate translational efficiency. The other type, type II, contains large portions or almost entire sequences of rRNA with a cap at the 5' end and poly(A) at 3' end. Recent work has shown that some type II PART have functional significance for some neurodegenerative disease processes and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Further investigation in this area is critical to understanding the basic biology of PART and the potential role of PART in diseases.