The efferent connections of the lateral septal nucleus in the guinea pig: projections to the diencephalon and brainstem

Cell Tissue Res. 1991 Jun;264(3):391-413. doi: 10.1007/BF00319031.


The anterograde Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) tracing technique was used to determine the distribution of efferent fibers originating in the lateral septal nucleus of the guinea pig. For complementary detection of the chemical identity of the target neurons, double-labeling immunocytochemistry was performed with antibodies to PHA-L and to vasopressin, oxytocin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, serotonin or dopamine beta-hydroxylase, respectively. The hypothalamus received the majority of the PHA-L-stained septofugal fibers. Here, a specific topography was observed. (1) The medial and lateral preoptic area, (2) the anterior, lateral, dorsal, posterior hypothalamic and retrochiasmatic area, (3) the supraoptic, paraventricular, suprachiasmatic, dorsomedial, caudal ventromedial and arcuate nuclei, and (4) the tuberomammillary, medial and lateral supramammillary, dorsal and ventral premammillary nuclei always contained PHA-L-labeled fibers. The rostral portion of the ventromedial nucleus and the medial and lateral mammillary nucleus only occasionally showed weak terminal labeling. In other diencephalic areas, termination of PHA-L-labeled fibers was observed in the epithalamus and the nuclei of the midline region of the thalamus. In the mesencephalon, terminal varicosities occurred in the ventral tegmental area, interfascicular and interpeduncular nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. In addition, the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei of the metencephalon, together with the locus coeruleus and the dorsal tegmental nucleus, received lateral septal efferents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Mapping
  • Brain Stem / chemistry
  • Brain Stem / cytology*
  • Diencephalon / chemistry
  • Diencephalon / cytology*
  • Diencephalon / physiology
  • Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase / analysis
  • Female
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Neural Pathways
  • Neurons, Efferent / chemistry
  • Neurons, Efferent / cytology*
  • Oxytocin / analysis
  • Phytohemagglutinins / metabolism
  • Septal Nuclei / chemistry
  • Septal Nuclei / cytology*
  • Serotonin / analysis
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / analysis


  • Phytohemagglutinins
  • leukoagglutinins, plants
  • Serotonin
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • Oxytocin
  • Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase