After hind limb suspension, a remodeling of postural muscle phenotype is observed. This remodeling results in a shift of muscle profile from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic. These metabolic changes and fiber type shift increase muscle fatigability. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) influences the skeletal muscle phenotype of soleus muscle suggesting a positive role of dietary supplementation of ALCAR during unloading. In the present study, we applied a 2-D DIGE, mass spectrometry and biochemical assays, to assess qualitative and quantitative differences in the proteome of rat slow-twitch soleus muscle subjected to disuse. Meanwhile, the effects of ALCAR administration on muscle proteomic profile in both unloading and normal-loading conditions were evaluated. The results indicate a modulation of troponin I and tropomyosin complex to regulate fiber type transition. Associated, or induced, metabolic changes with an increment of glycolytic enzymes and a decreased capacity of fat oxidation are observed. These metabolic changes appear to be counteracted by ALCAR treatment, which restores the mitochondrial mass and decreases the glycolytic enzyme expression, suggesting a normalization of the metabolic shift observed in unloaded animals. This normalization is accompanied by a maintenance of body weight and seems to prevent a switch of fiber type.