Pesticide exports from U.S. ports, 2001-2003

Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008 Jul-Sep;14(3):176-86. doi: 10.1179/oeh.2008.14.3.176.


Analysis of U.S. Custom Service records for 2001-2003 indicates that nearly 1.7 billion pounds of pesticide products were exported from U.S. ports, a rate >32 tons/hour. Exports included >27 million pounds of pesticides whose use is forbidden in the United States. WHO Class 1a and 1b pesticides were exported at an average rate of >16 tons/day. Pesticide exports included >500,000 pounds of known or suspected carcinogens, with most going to developing countries; pesticides associated with endocrine disruption were exported at an average rate of >100 tons/day. Although the rate of export of banned products declined, as did exports of pesticides included in global conventions on Prior Informed Consent and Persistent Organic Pollutions, substantial quantities of hazardous products remain in trade. These products pose unacceptable risks in countries where unsafe use and storage practices are prevalent. Policy makers, growers, and scientists must undertake more aggressive efforts to foster sustainable agricultural practices globally.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Commerce / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Commerce / trends*
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Internationality*
  • Pesticides* / classification
  • Pesticides* / toxicity
  • United States


  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Pesticides