Published reports implicate a variety of mechanisms that may contribute to drug resistance in ovarian cancer. The chief aim of this study is to understand the relationship between overexpression of drug resistance associated genes and multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer. Using lentiviral short hairpin RNA collections targeting 132 genes identified from transcriptional profiling of drug-resistant cancer cell lines, individual knockdown experiments were done in the presence of sublethal doses of paclitaxel. Specific genes whose knockdown was found to be associated with cellular toxicity included MDR1 (ABCB1), survivin, and pre-mRNA processing factor-4 (PRP-4). These genes, when repressed, can reverse paclitaxel resistance in the multidrug-resistant cell line SKOV-3(TR) and OVCAR8(TR). Both MDR1 and survivin have been reported previously to play a role in multidrug resistance and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis; however, the effect of PRP-4 expression on drug sensitivity is currently unrecognized. PRP-4 belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, plays a role in pre-mRNA splicing and cell mitosis, and interacts with CLK1. Northern analysis shows that PRP-4 is overexpressed in several paclitaxel-resistant cell lines and confirms that PRP-4 expression could be significantly repressed by PRP-4 lentiviral short hairpin RNA. Both clonogenic and MTT assays confirm that transcriptional repression of PRP-4 could reverse paclitaxel resistance 5-10-fold in SKOV-3(TR). Finally, overexpression of PRP-4 in drug-sensitive cells could induce a modest level of drug resistance to paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and vincristine.