Neutralizing antibodies to therapeutic enzymes: considerations for testing, prevention and treatment

Nat Biotechnol. 2008 Aug;26(8):901-8. doi: 10.1038/nbt.1484.


Lysosomal storage diseases are characterized by deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes, allowing accumulation of target substrate in cells and eventually causing cell death. Enzyme replacement therapy is the principal treatment for most of these diseases. However, these therapies are often complicated by immune responses to the enzymes, blocking efficacy and causing severe adverse outcomes by neutralizing product activity. It is thus crucial to understand the relationships between genetic mutations, endogenous residual enzyme proteins (cross-reactive immunologic material), development of neutralizing antibodies and their impact on clinical outcomes of lysosomal storage diseases. For patients in whom neutralizing antibodies may cause severe adverse clinical outcomes, it is paramount to develop tolerance inducing protocols to preclude, where predictable, or treat such life-threatening responses.

MeSH terms

  • Antibody Formation / immunology*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / immunology*
  • Enzyme Therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Immunoassay
  • Lysosomal Storage Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Lysosomal Storage Diseases / enzymology
  • Lysosomal Storage Diseases / genetics
  • Lysosomal Storage Diseases / immunology
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Enzyme Inhibitors