Pregnancy after transplantation

Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2008 Oct;22(4):223-40. doi: 10.1016/j.trre.2008.05.001. Epub 2008 Aug 6.


The National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry (NTPR) was established in 1991 to study the outcomes of pregnancies in female transplant recipients and pregnancies fathered by male transplant recipients. Data from the NTPR have helped to endorse the reassurances from publications of smaller experiences that successful pregnancies are possible in the transplant population. In our last review for this journal (2000), we noted that important future issues would include the reassessment of prepregnancy guidelines, gestational and organ-specific problems, the role of new immunosuppressive drugs, and the long-term effects of pregnancy on both graft and child. Data collected by the NTPR over the last 7 years have addressed these issues, thus providing additional information for health care providers of transplant recipients of childbearing age. There has been some refinement of prepregnancy guidelines, but there is a need for additional data collection so that organ-specific outcomes and risks can further be identified. To date, the outcomes of the children followed have been encouraging, and specific remote effects have not been identified, but continued surveillance is still vital. Of special concern are the new immunosuppressive drugs, specifically for mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept, Roche Laboratories Inc., Nutley, New Jersey), where data reported to the NTPR and through postmarketing surveillance have shown an increased incidence of nonviable outcomes and a specific pattern and increased incidence of malformation in the newborn, which has resulted in a pregnancy category change. Newer information points to an increased need for vigilance among centers and continued monitoring of pregnancy outcomes in this population. As the first reported pregnancy after transplantation occurred in a kidney recipient 50 years ago, in March 1958, this review also highlights the first reported pregnancies in other solid organ recipients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Mycophenolic Acid / adverse effects
  • Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Mycophenolic Acid / pharmacology
  • Organ Transplantation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / chemically induced
  • Pregnancy Complications / etiology*
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Mycophenolic Acid