Ocular impairment of toxoplasmosis

Parassitologia. 2008 Jun;50(1-2):35-6.


The purpose of this review is to update the latest information about ocular toxoplasmosis. The infection can be congenital or acquired, but also depends about the immune condition of the patient and can affect the eye. Ocular symptoms are variable according to the age of the subject. Retinochoroiditis is the most common manifestation of toxoplasmic infection. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis typically affects the posterior pole, and the lesions can be solitary or multiple. Active lesions present as grey-white focus of retinal necrosis with adjacent choroiditis, vasculitis, hemorrhage and vitreitis. Anterior uveitis is a common finding. Atypical presentations include punctate outer retinitis, neuroretinitis and papillitis. Depending on the patient's age and the localization of the lesion, ocular symptoms vary usually presenting with reduced visual acuity or without symptoms. The laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on detection of antibodies and T. gondii DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which fulfillis clinical findings. Toxoplasmosis therapy includes antimicrobial drugs and corticosteroids. There are several regimens with different drug combinations including, among others, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, clindamycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Protozoan / blood
  • Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • DNA, Protozoan / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Toxoplasma / genetics
  • Toxoplasma / immunology
  • Toxoplasmosis, Congenital / epidemiology
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular* / diagnosis
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular* / drug therapy
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular* / epidemiology


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Antibodies, Protozoan
  • Antiprotozoal Agents
  • DNA, Protozoan