Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers

J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 10;56(17):7796-802. doi: 10.1021/jf8007037. Epub 2008 Aug 12.


The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anthocyanins / blood
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacokinetics*
  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Arecaceae / chemistry*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Flavanones / blood
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Glucosides / blood
  • Humans
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / blood
  • Uric Acid / blood


  • Anthocyanins
  • Antioxidants
  • Flavanones
  • Glucosides
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside
  • Uric Acid
  • naringenin