Objective: To investigate maternal serum adiponectin and Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels during the pre- and post-partum periods in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Design: Thirty control pregnant Caucasian women without GDM and thirty body mass index (BMI) and age-matched Caucasian women with GDM examined in the outpatient clinic between the 24th and 26th week of their pregnancy and on the 3rd day postpartum underwent anthropometry and had serum blood taken. Both groups, were monitored by a dietitian and had comparable weight gain during pregnancy. Birth weight was also measured.
Results: At the 3rd day postpartum, compared to the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, women with GDM had lower serum adiponectin levels, lower serum IL-1beta levels and lower homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. At the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, women with GDM had lower serum adiponectin levels, higher IL-1beta and higher HOMA-IR values compared to women without GDM. At the 3rd day postpartum, women with GDM had lower serum adiponectin levels, higher IL-1beta and higher HOMA-IR values compared to women without GDM. Second trimester serum adiponectin values of women with GDM correlated negatively with birth weight.
Conclusions: Gestational diabetes is a state of insulin resistance associated with altered levels of proinflammatory cytokines, increased IL-1beta and decreased adiponectin values. Both of these alterations might be attributed to placental pathology in pregnancies with GDM.