Objective: To study the incidence and clinical outcomes of intraoperative aneurysm rupture (IOR) during endovascular coil embolization at a single large volume center and to review the literature on this subject to determine whether IOR rupture rate and mortality correlate with volume of aneurysms treated at a given center and years since the institution of Guglielmi detachable coils as a treatment modality.
Methods: We reviewed the aneurysm database at the Center for Endovascular Surgery since its inception (1997-2003) and reviewed 600 consecutively treated intracranial aneurysms in which coiling was attempted. All patients who sustained an IOR were studied. Procedural and follow-up angiograms as well as clinical outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. A literature review was conducted.
Results: Six patients (1.0%) experienced IOR (1.4% in acutely ruptured lesions, 0% in unruptured). All six had presented with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (Fisher Grade 3) and in good clinical grade (Hunt & Hess Grades 1-3). One patient was rendered permanently disabled secondary to delay in controlling the IOR. All others were neurologically unchanged. A review of the literature revealed a trend in correlation between volume of aneurysms treated and IOR rate; no statistically significant correlation was found between volume of aneurysms treated or years since the introduction of GDC technology and IOR rates or mortality.
Conclusion: IOR remains a serious risk of endosaccular coiling of intracranial aneurysms, with aneurysms presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage at greater risk for this complication. This risk can be minimized with very low associated morbidity and mortality (incidence 1%, 17% morbidity, 0% mortality at our institution).